0
info@redzet.lv

Technology » Technique » Ships, boats

Boat on the River Dubna Dubna River and Boat
Read description
Boat on the River Dubna , Laiva

Boat on the River Dubna

Code: U-061-18-AP
Author: Aija Pastare
Photo taken on July 30, 2018
FREE 667 x 1000 px
72 dpi
257 KB
S 1333 x 2000 px
2.6 MB
M 1653 x 2480 px
14 x 21 cm / 300 dpi
L 2592 x 3888 px
21.95 x 32.92 cm / 300 dpi
9.0 MB
XL 4000 x 6000 px
33.87 x 50.8 cm / 300 dpi
17.9 MB

A boat is a watercraft of a large range of type and size. Ships are generally distinguished from boats based on their larger size, shape, and cargo or passenger capacity.

Small boats are typically found on inland waterways such as rivers and lakes, or in protected coastal areas. However, some boats, such as the whaleboat, were intended for use in an offshore environment. In modern naval terms, a boat is a vessel small enough to be carried aboard a ship. Anomalous definitions exist, as bulk freighters 1,000 feet (300 m) long on the Great Lakes being known as oreboats.

Boats vary in proportion and construction methods due to their intended purpose, available materials, or local traditions. Canoes have been used since prehistoric times and remain in use throughout the world for transportation, fishing, and sport. Fishing boats vary widely in style partly to match local conditions. Pleasure craft used in recreational boating include ski boats, pontoon boats, and sailboats. House boats may be used for vacationing or long-term residence. Lighters are used to convey cargo to and from large ships unable to get close to shore. Lifeboats have rescue and safety functions.

Boats can be propelled by manpower (e.g. rowboats and paddle boats), wind (e.g. sailboats), and motor (both gasoline and diesel fueled).

History
Boats have served as transportation since the earliest times. Circumstantial evidence, such as the early settlement of Australia over 40,000 years ago, findings in Crete dated 130,000 years ago, and in Flores dated to 900,000 years ago, suggest that boats have been used since prehistoric times. The earliest boats are thought to have been dugouts, and the oldest boats found by archaeological excavation date from around 7,000–10,000 years ago. The oldest recovered boat in the world, the Pesse canoe, found in the Netherlands, is a dugout made from the hollowed tree trunk of a Pinus sylvestris that was constructed somewhere between 8200 and 7600 BC. This canoe is exhibited in the Drents Museum in Assen, Netherlands. Other very old dugout boats have also been recovered. Rafts have operated for at least 8,000 years. A 7,000-year-old seagoing reed boat has been found in Kuwait. Boats were used between 4000 and 3000 BC in Sumer, ancient Egypt and in the Indian Ocean.

Boats played an important role in the commerce between the Indus Valley Civilization and Mesopotamia. Evidence of varying models of boats has also been discovered at various Indus Valley archaeological sites. Uru craft originate in Beypore, a village in south Calicut, Kerala, in southwestern India. This type of mammoth wooden ship was constructed solely of teak, with a transport capacity of 400 tonnes. The ancient Arabs and Greeks used such boats as trading vessels.

The historians Herodotus, Pliny the Elder and Strabo record the use of boats for commerce, travel, and military purposes.

Types
Boats can be categorized into three main types:

  • Unpowered or human-powered. Unpowered craft include rafts meant for one-way downstream travel. Human-powered boats include canoes, kayaks, gondolas and boats propelled by poles like a punt.
  • Sailboats, propelled mainly by means of sails.
  • Motorboats, propelled by mechanical means, such as engines.


Terminology
The hull is the main, and in some cases only, structural component of a boat. It provides both capacity and buoyancy. The keel is a boat's "backbone", a lengthwise structural member to which the perpendicular frames are fixed. On most boats a deck covers the hull, in part or whole. While a ship often has several decks, a boat is unlikely to have more than one. Above the deck are often lifelines connected to stanchions, bulwarks perhaps topped by gunnels, or some combination of the two. A cabin may protrude above the deck forward, aft, along the centerline, or covering much of the length of the boat. Vertical structures dividing the internal spaces are known as bulkheads.

The forward end of a boat is called the bow, the aft end the stern. Facing forward the right side is referred to as starboard and the left side as port.

Building materials
Until the mid-19th century most boats were made of natural materials, primarily wood, although reed, bark and animal skins were also used. Early boats include the bound-reed style of boat seen in Ancient Egypt, the birch bark canoe, the animal hide-covered kayak and coracle and the dugout canoe made from a single log.

By the mid-19th century, many boats had been built with iron or steel frames but still planked in wood. In 1855 ferro-cement boat construction was patented by the French, who coined the name "ferciment". This is a system by which a steel or iron wire framework is built in the shape of a boat's hull and covered over with cement. Reinforced with bulkheads and other internal structure it is strong but heavy, easily repaired, and, if sealed properly, will not leak or corrode. These materials and methods were copied all over the world and have faded in and out of popularity to the present time.

As the forests of Britain and Europe continued to be over-harvested to supply the keels of larger wooden boats, and the Bessemer process (patented in 1855) cheapened the cost of steel, steel ships and boats began to be more common. By the 1930s boats built entirely of steel from frames to plating were seen replacing wooden boats in many industrial uses and fishing fleets. Private recreational boats of steel remain uncommon. In 1895 WH Mullins produced steel boats of galvanized iron and by 1930 became the world's largest producer of pleasure boats.

Mullins also offered boats in aluminum from 1895 through 1899 and once again in the 1920s, but it wasn't until the mid-20th century that aluminium gained widespread popularity. Though much more expensive than steel, aluminum alloys exist that do not corrode in salt water, allowing a similar load carrying capacity to steel at much less weight.

Around the mid-1960s, boats made of fiberglass (glass-reinforced plastic) became popular, especially for recreational boats. The United States Coast Guard refers to these as 'FRP' (for fiber-reinforced plastic) boats. Fiberglass boats are strong, and do not rust, corrode, or rot. Instead, they are susceptible to structural degradation from sunlight and extremes in temperature over their lifespan. FRP structures can be made stiffer with sandwich panels, where the FRP encloses a lightweight core such as balsa or foam.

Cold moulding is similar to FRP in using epoxy or polyester resins, but substitutes wood for fibreglass as the structural component. In cold moulding very thin strips of wood are layered over a form. Each layer is coated with resin, followed by another directionally alternating layer laid on top. Subsequent layers may be stapled or otherwise mechanically fastened to the previous, or weighted or vacuum bagged to provide compression and stabilization until the resin sets.
en.wikipedia.org

Boat on the River Dubna

Code: U-061-18-AP
Author: Aija Pastare
Photo taken on July 30, 2018
FREE 667 x 1000 px
72 dpi
257 KB
S 1333 x 2000 px
2.6 MB
M 1653 x 2480 px
14 x 21 cm / 300 dpi
L 2592 x 3888 px
21.95 x 32.92 cm / 300 dpi
9.0 MB
XL 4000 x 6000 px
33.87 x 50.8 cm / 300 dpi
17.9 MB
This website is currently a work-in-progress, but we are adding new content daily!
Close
Portālu www.redzet.lv un www.gotobaltic.com veidotāju grupas darbības sākums meklējams jau 2004. gadā, kad pulciņš domubiedru – 4 jaunieši un viens pieaugušais – brauca pa Latviju muzicēdami un iepazīdami Latvijas dabu un atklādami ceļotprieku. Tolaik arī radās interese par fotografēšanu, kā rezultātā laika gaitā sakrājās liels fotoarhīvs. Radās jautājums, kur to likt, kā izmantot, lai tam būtu kāda jēga? Tāpēc arī dzima ideja par portāla izveidošanu, un nu jau dažus gadus tā ir sekmīgi realizēta, jo portālā www.redzēt.lv līdz šim ir ievietots vairāk par 20000 bildēm, ik dienas tam ir ap 600 unikālo skatījumu un ir bilžu bezmaksas lejuplādes iespēja, kas tiek plaši izmantota.
Apceļojot Latviju, radās secinājums, ka mums ir ļoti daudz skaistu, bet neapzinātu vietu un ceļotājam nebūt nav viegli ātri un ērti atrast sev vajadzīgo informāciju, kas kurā vietā būtu apskates vērts. Sākām vākt materiālus dažādās interneta vietnēs, un vajadzība atkal deva jaunu ideju – veidot ceļotājam ērtu portālu, kurā vienuviet būtu iespējams atrast visu vajadzīgo informāciju – ko attiecīgajā vietā apskatīt, kur paēst, kur pārnakšņot, kur vērsties dažādu tehnisku nepieciešamību un kļūmju gadījumos. Pašreiz esam šīs idejas īstenošanas sākumā, un mūsu mērķis ir ar portāla www.gotobaltic.com palīdzību veidot tūrismam pievilcīgu Latvijas un vēlāk visas Baltijas tēlu, kā arī reklamēt mūsu organizācijas, uzņēmējus, individuālos ražotājus u.c., palīdzot viņiem piesaistīt klientus.
Sākumā plānojam parādīt kartē Latviju, sadalītu pa reģioniem un novadiem. Reģionu kartē būs redzamas interesantākās apskates vietas. Novados varēs redzēt plašāku informāciju par apskates vietām un sociāli nozīmīgiem objektiem.
Savu mērķi sākam īstenot ar Kurzemes novadiem.
Ērtības labad piedāvājam divus apskates veidus:
1. Uzklikšķinot atveram novada karti un izvēlamies sev interesējošo objektu apskati.
2. Sev interesējošas vietas aplūkošanai izvēlamies no saraksta.
Papildus kartei un apskates vietu sarakstam portālā atradīsiet attiecīgo vietu fotogrāfijas un informatīvus aprakstus. Tas jums palīdzēs izvēlēties savu ceļojumu pieturas un galamērķus.
Mūsu lielais mērķis ir šādā veidā parādīt visu Baltiju.
Perspektīvā plānojam portālu tulkot angļu, krievu, vācu, ķīniešu un poļu valodās, tādējādi piedāvājot lielisku produktu šo valstu tūristiem.

Tā kā uzdevums ir ļoti liels, aicinām katru interesantu uz sadarbību.


Turpināt lejuplādēt

Sākot ar 1 eiro atbalstu
saņemsiet iespēju 30 dienas
LEJUPLĀDĒT FOTOGRĀFIJAS LABĀ KVALITĀTĒ
(S izmērs, A4, 2000 x 1333 px)
bez www.redzet.lv logo

UZZINĀT VAIRĀK
REĢISTRĒJIES

un
30 dienas
iegūsti
JEBKURAS FOTOGRĀFIJAS FOTOGRĀFIJAS LABĀ KVALITĀTĒ
(S izmērs, A4, 2000 x 1333 px) bez www.redzet.lv logo
Reģistrēties
PRIVĀTPERSONĀM sākot ar 1 EUR
KOMERCIĀLAI LIETOŠANAI sākot ar 5 EUR
Reģistrējoties saņemsi piekļuvi
lejuplādes pogai

Varēsi lejuplādēt jebkuras izvēlētās fotogrāfijas!
Garantējam Jūsu sniegtās informācijas konfidencialitāti.
Jautājumu gadījumā sazinieties ar mums: info@redzet.lv
IEGŪSTI AUGSTAS KVALITĀTES FOTOGRĀFIJAS

5 € = 5 FOTO vai 10 € = 20 FOTO
iegūsti FOTOGRĀFIJAS AUGSTĀ KVALITĀTĒ
L izmērs, 3888 x 2592 px, vai XL izmērā


Raksti mums uz:
info@redzet.lv
un iegūsti izvēlētās fotogrāfijas!

Izvēlieties jebkuras 5 fotogrāfijas neatkarīgi no lieluma un kvalitātes par 5 eiro, vai jebkuras 20 fotogrāfijas par 10 eiro.

Ielogoties

Jūs neaizpildījāt abus laukus.

Reģistrēties

Jūs neaizpildījāt visus laukus.